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Phase Two - Retrenchment and Redirection - 1955

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) holds a national meeting in Atlanta and issues “The Atlanta Declaration,” which calls for branches in the South to petition local school boards to comply with the desegregation order.

In retaliation, the state, under Governor Herman Talmage and then again when Governor Marvin Griffin, institutes legislation making it a state offense for Georgia schools to comply with the federal mandate to desegregate.

The Montgomery bus boycott begins in Alabama. The insurance for the cars used to transport that city’s black residents is purchased by Atlanta businessman T.M. Alexander.

November: The U.S. Supreme Court reverses a June decision of the lower court and orders the desegregation of public golf courses in Atlanta and throughout the nation. In spite of demands by many white Atlantans to close the courses rather than integrate, Mayor William Hartsfield complies with the Supreme Court decision and orders the integration of the golf courses. As a concession to conservative whites, the shower facilities of these recreational facilities are closed.